Friday, May 22, 2020
After the American Civil War, a laissez-faire government allowed for a new class of businessmen to rise to power: those who dominated an entire industry, sometimes several markets. They were the hallmark of the so-called Gilded Age, which lasted from the end of reconstruction until the early 1900s. These men, known as Robber Barons, shaped the American economy, necessitating new laws to be signed to limit their power . Although there were only four main Barons (John D. Rockefeller, Andrew Carnegie, Cornelius Vanderbilt, and J.P. Morgan), they controlled much of the economy with their four respective trades: Oil, steel, railroads, and banking . Although all four were important, Rockefeller and Carnegie stand head and shoulders above the rest, becoming among the richest and most successful people the world has ever seen with the exception of some royalty. During the Civil War, both the Union and Confederacy converted to Ã¢â¬Å"Total WarÃ¢â¬ economies. With all industries, from manu facturing to agriculture to textiles, focused on the war effort, many relatively new industries grew surpassingly large. Railroads in the North grew by around 16,000 miles, an increase of nearly 75%. However, relatively small companies controlled relatively small sections of track privately. This set the stage for Vanderbilt to begin buying up companies until he controlled one of the largest railroad networks ever seen. The latter parts of the Civil War and the early reconstruction saw the rise of a newShow MoreRelatedPost Civil War: Reconstructive Era and African Americans1070 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe African American during the Reconstruction Era probably felt victorious as well as discomfited. Prior to the Civil war, slaves vehemently hoped freedom would give them the right of equal status in American society, but to their surprise, their dream of an egalitarian America was impeded after the assassination of President Lincoln. Their lives became drastically different and diffic ult in an era that was increasingly contumacious to their well wishes. The end of the Civil War brought socialRead MoreThe American Civil War1418 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesGuns fired, smoke lingering in the air, people dying. The American Civil War had a huge impact on the United States. Two compromises took place before the start of the Civil War. These compromises include the Missouri Compromise and the Compromise of 1850. The Missouri Compromise dealt with the crisis in 1819 over Missouri entering the Union as a slave state. The compromise was Ã¢â¬Å"the first major crisis over slavery, and it shattered a tacit agreement between the two regions that had been in placeRead MoreEssay about The Reconstruction Era: The Planted Seeds1231 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe first roar of the Civil War ended with a last gasp for air. Where in such a war more than six hundred twenty thousand men sacrificed their lives for their own belief in the abolishment of slavery (Ã¢â¬Å"Civil War FactsÃ¢â¬ ). Ã ¢â¬Å"We here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain. That this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedomÃ¢â¬ (Baslor). These wise words of Abraham Lincoln cleared the way of a desolate trail of violence and pain, yet he was determined to accomplish his plansRead MoreThe Civil War Was A Grave Cause Of Many Events. Many People1663 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe civil war was a grave cause of many events. Many people may see the results of the war as a chain reaction to many following eras. One of the most prominent eras that emerged from the civil war was the reconstruction era. The reconstruction era emerged around 1865 and continued until 1877. This time period generally refers to the time in United States history in which the federal government set the conditions that would allow the rebellious Southern states back into the Union. The States wereRead MoreA Working Polish Man Named Jurgis Rudkus1199 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagessocietal influences. -Thesis: Upton SInclair applied aspects of the Civil War in his novel with his views on the treatment of humanity through the use of symbolism, and the presentation of the conflict and resolution. Body Paragraphs Paragraph 1: 1P: The symbolism presented in the novel brings upon the relation of the oppression experienced by the immigrant workers and African American slaves laboring on farms during the Civil War era. E: Ã¢â¬Å"In these chutes the stream of animals was continuously, pressingRead MoreThe End Of The 20th Century1544 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesHistory since the end of the Civil War to the end of the 20th century has changed drastically when you asses America on an economic, social, and political level. The changes between the end of the 19th century and the end of the 20th century are the cause in the way America has been shaped and how AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s think. In fact, industrialization and urbanization, equal rights for all citizens, and two world wars played a major role in the shape of America to our understanding. Although, there are numerousRead More`` Ain t I A Woman ``865 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageswas very hectic due to the Civil War. For a while, people wanted to get away or hide from their realities when they wrote or read literature. During the Civil War, mindsets changed and people were tired of the fantasies. People craved realistic stories with real, life-like endings. Realist w riters answered the cry of Americans who wanted to explore realistic literature; Sojourner TruthÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"AinÃ¢â¬â¢t I A WomanÃ¢â¬ is a true representation of literature during the realistic era. The start of realism inRead MoreOrigin Of And Role Played By Manifest Destiny1323 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesUnited StatesÃ¢â¬â¢ population had more than quadrupled and Americans believed God had destined that they span the entire North America from one coast to the other. Although the term Ã¢â¬Å"Manifest DestinyÃ¢â¬ was used to typify the 1840s American expansionistic exuberance, it can be broadly used to characterize any countryÃ¢â¬â¢s imperialistic thrusts (Harriet). In this regard, Utah, the indigenous American Indians, faced expansionistic archetypes with the Americans, Spanish imperialists, European and French fur tradersRead MoreEssay about Hist204 African American Annotated Bibliography1098 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAfrican Americans Hester 1 The African American race and the events they have been involved in from 1865- resent day, have single handedly contributed to and shaped the race they are today and the issues they deal with now. There are six specific areas of history that had great impact an effect on shaping African Americans, their culture, the society, and even social status to date. These events include The Civil War, this marked the beginning of freedom for blacks or so they thought. It directlyRead More The Progressive Era Essay1275 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesStates. The progressive era was a time in which Americans were innovating in social welfare. In the progressive period the government needed to take action in the role of economy, regulating big business, immigration, and urban growth. Once the great depression happened in which AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s economy faltered people started to panic. For Americans the main issues asked were how to make society work more efficiently. The great society era was a time of opt imism after the post-world war II occurred. The creations
Saturday, May 9, 2020
Argumentative Essay Topics Course Hero English Writing Exposed Anyway, you should also study different writers arguments for and against the very same or similar topics. Writing persuasive speech is a difficult job for many students. You concentrate on the validity or otherwise of the arguments offered in the essay. You also may be interested in business law essay topics. Choosing Argumentative Essay Topics Course Hero English Writing Examine the list to choose the topic which can help you compose a creative essay for your middle school class. Nonetheless, the teachers still anticipate that students will pick a great topic for an expository essay. To compose a strong argumentative essay, students should start by familiarizing themselves with a number of the common, and frequently conflicting, positions on the research topic so they can write an educated paper. Read the list and stay in mind that interesting topics are a proper way for an intriguing assignment. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020
ETHICS FINAL PROJECT 1. Proposed Action Plan: Describe the action plan you proposed at the beginning of the semester. At the beginning of the semester we first had the idea of taking a computer to the asylum to help those people in there to have more technology; we also wanted to take brooms and mops to help them to have cleaned the house. We will write a custom essay sample on Ethics Final Project or any similar topic only for you Order Now The entire classroom talked about this and each team decided to do something for those needed people. 2. Done activities: Explain very carefully the different activities you did during this semester, including dates, names of the responsible people in the team, and results. We went to the computer department to see if they had a computer with no use and if they can give it to use, they decided to tell us when they got one with no use. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s how they did it, after a time they told us, but it was a long time when they advised us so we had another project which was to make stairs for rehabilitation to the people in the asylum, so we united with other team and gave them money to make this project real. 3. Comparative of the results: Write down if the results of your project were the ones you expected. If not, how are they different? Why? We wanted to give them the computer so we didnÃ¢â¬â¢t expect that we would unite our team with another one to make the stairs project, so we think it is not what we expected to be our project but we think that the idea to unite teams was a good one because the stairs were really expensive. 4. Personal Learning: Explain if the members of the team had some learning experience with this project. Yes all of the team members had a great experience, because of helping people ho needed and thatÃ¢â¬â¢s the main reason why because it feels great doing that, and knowing that other people can get better just for a little help of yours. 5. Team Work: Describe how your team work was, including positive and negative aspects. Our team work was good because we went to the asylum and check what they needed and because the team all united went to the computers department and all of the team members had a great experience with this project and not only because w e did it well, itÃ¢â¬â¢s because we helped other people. 6. Conclusion: Finally write down a conclusion about the social work you had this semester. We think this semester help us a lot because of many things, we helped needed people and thatÃ¢â¬â¢s feels great, we learned ethics about many things of the human life animal life and many things more. This was a great semester and all the team members are really happy to be here in this class, thanks Elideth for doing this to us. Team Members: Erick Villasenor Oscar Torres Paola Delgadillo Joel Azuara Victor Galvan Sofia Ascanio Daniela Diaz Juan Pablo Fernandez Vertiz How to cite Ethics Final Project, Essay examples
Wednesday, April 29, 2020
The Role of Fear and Obsession on Gothic Literature Paper Gothicism itself is a branch of Romanticism, which twists the idea of feeling into slightly more morbid and macabre emotions of fear and a dead, twisted and medieval past as well as losing the early Romantic sense of a moral purpose. The quotation above, taken from Oscar Wildes novel The Picture of Dorian Gray, introduces some of the key ideas which seem to run prevalently throughout Gothic works of fiction and art. It seems undeniable that influence and obsession are able to create, manipulate and dominate the emotions of fear and dread which often characterise the Gothic. Edmund Burke stated that: No passion so effectually robs the minds of all its powers of acting and reasoning as fear. It seems that within the development of the Gothic, fear plays a ubiquitous role. Influence can be prevalent in inciting fear, the influence of a figure or an atmosphere and other less tangible elements of the work can be key factors which hold a certain influence over the individual. However, fear in itself is often seen to present its own influence and it is this tantalizing inexplicable mystery of fear which so often develops and envelopes a character with obsession to retain truth and logic. We will write a custom essay sample on The Role of Fear and Obsession on Gothic Literature specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on The Role of Fear and Obsession on Gothic Literature specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on The Role of Fear and Obsession on Gothic Literature specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Within Susan Hills novel, The Woman in Black, the main character Arthur Kipps demonstrates an obvious fear of the woman in black and the supernatural elements of her presence and appearance suffering from some terrible wasting disease only the thinnest layer of flesh was tautly stretched and strained across her bones- are certainly expressed vividly throughout and contribute largely to the influence which she increasingly has on not only Kipps but also the villagers. The use of heavy adjectival phrases in describing the woman, the idea of deepest black, the woman described as pathetically wasted pale and gaunt with disease and the alliterative skin stretched and strained, give an initially comprehensive description of the woman which not only creates fear but also develops it steadily and makes it feel ubiquitous and unavoidable, as though every element of her is grotesque. Within the pre-1948 setting of the novel the idea of wasting, particularly referring to Tuberculosis, would have had a particularly chilling effect as the disease would have been the cause of many deaths and, before the introduction of the NHS, the lack of readily available health care would have made the disease a constant source of fear. However, it could also be argued that it is not only the descriptions of the woman which perpetuate a sense of fear and influence both the characters and the reader, indeed Hills descriptions of the woman are often significantly sparse. It seems within this text that the influence of fear is born from the idea of the mysterious and the unexplored rather than the grotesque and it is the influence of the unknown which shapes fear and creates a sense of the Gothic. The idea of a local and tightly-knit community who all share and perpetuate a sense of secrecy links strongly with the idea of this as a Gothic text Hill here uses the idea of isolation and unfamiliarity to enhance the idea that Kipps is an outsider and to create the mystery and silence which only fuels the influence of fear upon him: Mr Jerome stopped dead. He was staring at me Mr. Jerome looked frozen, pale, his throat moving as if he were unable to utter. Mr Jeromes reaction as well as the hotel landlords the name had stirred some strong emotion in him, all signs of which he endeavoured to suppress at once, are representative of the general reaction towards not only the woman but anything associated with her and so clearly another manifestation of her influence over them. This idea of fear being sparked and fuelled by a sense of mystery is certainly reflected within Wordsworths poem, The Thorn. Within this poem, from his collection of Lyrical Ballads, strong links can be made with The Woman in Black. The woman within the poem, Martha Ray, is a figure to be feared in the same way as the woman in black not as a result of her as a character but of the mysteries which envelope her. The whole poem is presented as a narrators account of what he has seen and the rumours which he has heard about a woman in a scarlet cloak. Wordsworth exacerbates the sense of fear for the woman by presenting his evidence in a haphazard and hearsay-like manner, some say is said, whilst steadily reinforcing the mystery with a sense of foreboding and subtle allusions such as the fact that the heap of earth is like an infants grave in size as well as the anaphoric use of the womans mysterious misery Oh woe is me! Oh misery! . Michael Kirkham states that the mystery comes from the fact that the narrator is unable to tell us whether the child was stillborn or was murdered1, Whilst Albert Gi rard, discussi ng why we are left in doubt, quotes a sentence from J. F. Danby, There is in the poem the possibility of a betrayed mother murdering her child, and adds, but the point, surely, is that it is never more than a possibility. 2 It seems key to the development of the story within the poem that the reader is made to feel the same sense of mystery that the narrator claims to feel. These slight allusions to wider and more traditionally fearful elements of the works are strongest when discussing the element of childhood and child mortality. The continued association which the woman has with death throughout The Woman in Black, too, obviously contributes largely to her mystery and the fear of her and is reinforced by the allusions to childhood mortality and the final revelation that witnessing her causes children to die- And whenever she has been seen in some violent or dreadful circumstance, a child has died. Again this can be seen within The Thorn as the references to a possible infants death create an initial unease which reaches a climax with some will say she hanged her baby on the tree, some say she drowned it in the pond. The delivery of this revelation, in a blank and unashamedly horrific fashion certainly shocks a reader and gives the cold feeling of dread which is so often identified as an element of Gothicism however, it seems that this only occurs as a result of the steady influence of mysterious and unexplored fear which Wordsworth has continually built upon. The idea of death amongst children would have been an extremely poignant and harshly relevant one contemporaneously where fears of childbirth itself and infancy were elevated. Our baby so had been thrown clear, clear against another tree. He lay crumpled on the grass below it, dead. Again the harsh brevity and impersonal nature of these words seem to give a stark poignancy and factual element to the death of Kipps baby within Susan Hills novel; it seems as though the woman and death are inevitably interlinked and it is this inevitability which serves to enhance the dread of her character. Fear itself as well as the influence which fear can have is also one of the key themes of Oscar Wildes novel, The Picture of Dorian Gray. Within The Picture of Dorian Gray, the portrait, an obvious anthropomorphised motif for sin and shame, is the source of fear to Dorian and it is the power of this fear which on several occasions exerts strong influences upon him. The idea of this novel as immoral would particularly be a reference to its direct challenge to Victorian morals and values of family, sexual restraint and strict social code of conduct which were propagated at the time. Certainly at the time of publication the book was labelled evil, whilst the Scots Observer wrote that Mr. Wilde has again been writing stuff that were better unwritten3. This quotation perhaps also demonstrates the fear of others towards the influence which Wilde himself may have held. It is not just the fear of being discovered which eats away at Dorian but the fear of himself and what he is capable of it was the living death of his own soul that troubled him. Dorians panicked self-promises to revert to an acceptable lifestyle and vain attempts to atone for his sins, though futile, are all obviously influenced by his portrait: One thing, however, he felt that it had done for him. It had made him conscious how unjust, how cruel, he had been to Sibyl Vane he portrait would be a guide to him through life, I have done too many dreadful things in life. I am not going to do any more. However, far from this fear acting as a constant reminder of morality, the fear also wields a strongly negative influence through the extreme excitement and passion of sin. This effectively reflects the nature of the mysterious fear within The Woman in Black and The Thorn a s fear itself is perhaps the greatest mystery and so the excitement for Dorian Gray lies in testing and breaking the mysteries of sin and debauchery, all characteristic elements of the Gothic. The link between influence and obsession within The Picture of Dorian Gray is strong; it can easily be seen that obsession is merely the product of strong influence, the degradation into the fervent compulsion of obsession from unavoidable influence He grew more and more enamoured of his own beauty, more and more interested in the corruption of his own soul The more he knew, the more he desired to know. He had mad hungers that grew more ravenous as he fed them. This influence is seen largely within Dorians own fear rather than the hideousness of the portrait. This path from influence upon a character to their obsession can also be seen within The Woman in Black where the influence of the fear upon Arthur Kipps develops into his obsession with delving into and uncovering the mystery: the woman in black affected us both as deeply as any other experience we had undergone in our lives I must face it out Such things one must face. And even as I spoke I felt a new determination arise within me I had fallen under some sort of spell of the kind that certain places exude and it drew me, my imaginings, my longings, my curiosity, my whole spirit . Aside from the influence which fear itself can present, within these three texts and indeed many other texts which present elements of the Gothic, the influential and obsessive power of the supernatural can be seen. Supernatural ideas, particularly commencing with those found in an orthodox theology, came strongly into conflict with the rationalism and idealism of the Enlightenment and the Age of Reason which had begun to take hold by 1688 and continued into around 1789. Gothicism, following from the Romantic, was born when seizing this challenge of the cold reality of enlightenment and, seeking feeling amidst the inartistic reason, twisted these feelings into extremes of fear, weirdness and grotesqueness. The friction with the new schools of thought caused disillusionment and discord and in the midst of the disagreement, Gothicism adopted elements of the Supernatural as both a reaction to the new ideals and due to the stretched extremes and inherent impossibility of the supernatural. The Picture of Dorian Gray deals strongly with the element of supernaturalism with Wildes interpretation of Marlowe and Goethes Faust myth via the changing portrait. This notion of a deal with the devil is, however, stretched in Wildes novel to present the obsessive influence of sin rather than just the uselessness of power. The portrait, changing to display Dorians sins and ages whilst he remains unchanged, seems to present an almost paradoxical influence over Dorian; whilst Dorians actions clearly influence the aesthetics of the picture, making it the misshapen shadow that had to bear the burden that should have been his own, the pictures horrid nature influences Dorians actions. It can be seen that the picture renders him sometimes good: it was watching him e would not sin and sometimes, through the mere obsessive nature of sin and lust, damning him: he grew more and more enamoured of the corruption of his own soul he had mad hungers that grew more ravenous as he fed them, an uncontrollable feeling of hatred suggested to him by the image. It could be viewed that this paradox between the influence between Dorian and the portrait reflects that in fact influence, far from being something supernatural and beyond control, has more of a sub-conscious and human factor in which we create and control our own i nfluences. Similarly The Woman in Black presents strong elements of the supernatural; the woman herself clearly has a ghostly influence over Mr. Kipps. It seems that the fact that she is a ghost, aside from the aforementioned appearance and attire, renders her influential and fearful. However there are other elements of the woman which make her so strongly influential over Arthur Kipps, the villagers and indeed the reader. Contextually, the notion of this woman would indeed have been something which was a source of great fear for many. The idea of a lone woman would have been unacceptable in this Victorian situation and could certainly have also created allusions to witchcraft and other ideas which challenge a strong morality of not only traditional family values but also the subservience of woman and the notion of them as the possession of a man, to be kept in check, whilst also presenting the mystery of the unknown. In addition to this, the woman herself has been viewed by several critics, such as Val Scullion, as the feminist protagonist of the novel. This reading presents the notion that the woman is fearful and influential through her obvious hideousness and difference but also because she is a woman. The contention is that Hills novel challenges the prevalent anxieties about motherhood and autonomy during the period when the idea of family itself was a difficult notion. The protagonist of the novel, the eponymous woman in black, resists the lot of the so-called fallen woman. In her spectral form, she repeatedly inflicts suffering on other families and children to avenge her own; her revenge and lack of compassion is unbound by time or place whilst her ghost is never laid to rest. The lack of restoration in the final pages could reflect her struggle and the limitlessness of the pain which she will cause. This view, held by Scullion, contends that the woman is fearful because she exists against the idea that a woman should be restrained and controlled. However, it seems more likely that the presentation of the woman in this way, as unruly and vengeful, is to enhance the fear rather than to play a more feminist role. It seems within these texts that a sense of Gothic, with regard to the influence and obsession of the characters, comes not so much from the conventional fear of the supernatural and the mystical but more from a human sense of emotion and instinct and things over which man has control. It is perhaps the cold reality and bluntness of possible sin, such as the murder of Basil Hallward within The Picture of Dorian Gray, which is far more chilling and fearful than anything other-worldly and unnatural. Wildes presentation of the murder, and Dorians feelings after, certainly create a strongly Gothic atmosphere yet without the expected darkness of a truly Gothic atmosphere. The sky was bright, and there was a genial warmth in the air the events of the preceding night crept with silent blood-stained feet into his brain, it seems that the notion of humanity and the obsession which drives us, has a more powerfully chilling influence than the strictly supernatural and weird. It is as though the element of possibility and familiarity of humanity is what creates the fear rather than something wildly improbable; fear is born from a twisted reality rather than an unimaginable wildness. The curious influence which Lord Henry himself has over Dorian, far from being supernatural, is still chilling and as effective at creating a sense of obsession and influence as the ghostly woman in black is within Hills novel. This influence and Henrys awareness of it there was something terribly enthralling in the exercise of influence is made more chilling to the reader because of its clearly degrading effect combined with Dorians naivety towards it: you are certainly my best friend, Harry, no-one has ever understood me as you have. Words from The Heart of Darkness by Conrad, another novel presenting the strongly horrific nature of man himself, seem appropriate: Look at the influence that men must have s it not frightful Porphyrias Lover, a poem by Robert Browning which presents strong elements of the Gothic, seems to do so too, not because it deals with elements of the spiritual and supernatural but, because it deals so shockingly with human passions and emotions, such as Dorians own or Henrys influence, which are certainly very possible and largely an element of humanity. The poem itself professes that passion will prevail, and it is chillingly Gothic that this murder has taken place not through the influence of a ghostly being or a portrait or indeed a decadent sense of medieval myth as in Keats St. Agnes Eve, but the plain obsession and influence of humanity and emotion. The obsession within this poem and the pure madness of Porphyrias lover, expecting God to interfere and say something And yet God has not said a word -, is dramatically heightened by the childlike simplicity of the rhyme; Rhythm mimics natural speech and the rhyme follows a conventional and standard ABABB pattern, this simplicity is demonstrated in the lines below. The symmetry of the rhyme and the ease and natural nature of the rhythm seem to reflect the madness within Porphyrias lover despite his reposed and calm fai de: surprise made my heart swell, and still it grew. The madness of the man is what has influenced his action yet it was also the perfection of the scene and the obsession with Porphyria and her love she was mine, mine, fair I strangled her . This obsession, a perfectly human one, yet insane, is what is most chilling about Brownings poem and indeed strongly reflects the sense of human influence within The Picture of Dorian Gray. Overall it is clear that influence, and the natural development of it into obsession, is a key feature which defines and creates the Gothic. Influence can abound in many forms within Gothic texts such as the natural influence of fear itself upon the victim and the unnatural fear of something supernatural; however, that which seems to create the element of spine-tingling and Gothic is bred mainly in something far more base and real than ghosts or curses. It is the possible which shocks and chills more than the unreal. In the same way that a terrible thought or feeling can be far more fearful than the unimaginable presence of something as otherworldly and unlikely as a curse, so too is Gothic literature defined by the baseness and instinct of humanity. Within these texts, particularly Porphyrias Lover, man himself, has more power in shaping his obsessions than would ordinarily be thought and the fact that emotions, thoughts and feelings can become so twisted and amoral is more greatly unsettling than anything incomprehensible. Human degradation is a cold reality and one which many strive to cover up yet when the mysteries of the human psyche are uncovered, perhaps because of a fearful obsession, the chilling nature of man is overturned.
Friday, March 20, 2020
Sharpie Pen Tie Dye - Use Science to Create Wearable Art Normal tie dye can be messy and time-consuming. You can get a really cool tie-dye effect using colored Sharpie pens on a t-shirt. This is a fun project that even young kids can try. Youll get wearable art and may learn something about diffusion and solvents. Lets get started! Sharpie Pen Tie Dye Materials colored Sharpie pens (permanent ink pens)rubbing alcohol (e.g., 70% or 90% isopropyl alcohol)white or light-colored cotton t-shirtplastic cup Let's Do Tie Dye! ... except you dont have to tie anything. Smooth a section of the shirt over your plastic cup. You can secure it with a rubber band if you want.Dot a Sharpie to form a circle in the center of the area formed by the cup. You are aiming for a dotted ring about 1 in diameter. You can use more than one color.Drip rubbing alcohol on the blank center of the circle. I used the extremely low-tech method of dipping a pencil in the alcohol and dotting it on the shirt. After a few drops, you will see the alcohol spread outward from the center of the ring, taking the Sharpie ink with it.Continue adding drops of alcohol until you are satisfied with the size of the pattern.Allow a couple of minutes for the alcohol to evaporate before moving on to a clean section of the shirt.It doesnt have to be a circle. You can make stars, triangles, squares, lines... be creative!After your shirt is completely dry (alcohol is flammable, so dont use heat on a damp shirt), set the colors by tumbling the shirt in a hot clothes dryer for ~15 minutes.You can wear and wash your new shirt like other clothes now. How It Works The ink in a Sharpie pen dissolves in alcohol but not in water. As the shirt absorbs the alcohol, the alcohol picks up the ink. You can get new colors when different colors of ink mix together. The wet ink will diffuse, or move from areas of higher concentration to lower concentration. When the alcohol evaporates, the ink dries. Sharpie pen ink doesnt dissolve in water, so the shirt can be washed. You can use other types of permanent markers, but dont expect great success using washable markers. Theyll dissolve in the alcohol to make the tie-dye pattern, but theyll also lose color as soon as you wash them.
Wednesday, March 4, 2020
Timeline of the Andean Cultures of South America Archaeologists working in the Andes traditionally divide the cultural development of the Peruvian civilizations into 12 periods, from the Preceramic period (ca 9500 BC) through the Late Horizon and into the Spanish conquest (1534 CE). This sequence was initially created by archaeologists John H. Rowe and Edward Lanning and it was based on the ceramic style and radiocarbon dates from the Ica Valley of the South Coast of Peru, and later extended to the whole region. The Preceramic Period (before 9500Ã¢â¬â1800 BC), literally, the period before pottery was invented, spans from the first arrival of humans in South America, whose date is still debated, until the first use of ceramic vessels. The following eras of ancient Peru (1800 BC-AD 1534) have been defined by archaeologists using an alternation of so-called Ã¢â¬Å"periodsÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"horizonsÃ¢â¬ which end with the arrival of the Europeans. The term Ã¢â¬Å"PeriodsÃ¢â¬ indicates a timeframe in which independent ceramic and art styles were widespread across the region. The term Ã¢â¬Å"HorizonsÃ¢â¬ defines, in contrast, periods in which specific cultural traditions managed to unify the whole region. Preceramic Period Preceramic Period I (before 9500 B.C.E.): First evidence of human occupation of Peru comes from groups of hunters of this tradition are the Chivateros (I) industry and the long and narrow Paijan points. Other important sites are Ushumachay, Telarmachay, Pachamachay.Preceramic Period III (8000Ã¢â¬â6000 B.C.E.): From this period, it is possible to recognize different cultural tradition, such as the Northwestern Tradition, where the site of Nanchoc dates to ca 6000 BC, the Paijan Tradition, the Central Andean Tradition, whose widespread lithic tradition has been found in many cave sites, such as the famous Lauricocha (I) and Guitarrero caves, and, finally, the Atacama Maritime Tradition, at the border between Peru and Chile, where the Chinchorro culture developed about 7000 years ago. Other important sites are Arenal, Amotope, Chivateros (II). Preceramic Period IV (6000Ã¢â¬â4200 B.C.E.): The hunting, fishing and foraging traditions developed during the previous periods continue. However, toward the end of this period, a climatic change allows for early plant cultivation. Important sites are Lauricocha (II), Ambo, Siches.Preceramic Period V (4200Ã¢â¬â2500 B.C.E.): This period corresponds to a relative stabilization of the sea level along with warmer temperatures, especially after 3000 BC. Increase in domesticated plants: squashes, chili peppers, beans, guavas and, most of all, cotton. Important sites are Lauricocha (III), Honda.Preceramic Period VI (2500Ã¢â¬â1800 B.C.E.): The last of the Preceramic periods is characterized by the emergence of monumental architecture, population increase, and widespread production of textiles. Different cultural traditions are recognizable: in the highlands, the Kotosh tradition, with the sites of Kotosh, La Galgada, Huaricoto, and along the coast, the monumental sites of CaralÃ S upe / Norte Chico tradition, including Caral, Aspero, Huaca Prieta, El Paraiso, La Paloma, Bandurria, Las Haldas, Piedra Parada. Initial through Late Horizon Initial Period (1800 Ã¢â¬â 900 B.C.E.): This period is marked by the appearance of pottery. New sites emerge along the coastal valleys, exploiting the rivers for cultivation. Important sites of this period are Caballo Muerto, in the Moche valley, Cerro Sechin and Sechin Alto in the Casma valley; La Florida, in the Rimac valley; Cardal, in the Lurin valley; and Chiripa, in the Titicaca basin.Early Horizon (900 Ã¢â¬â 200 B.C.E.): The Early Horizon sees the apogee of Chavin de Huantar in the northern highland of Peru and the successive widespread of the Chavin culture and its artistic motifs. In the South, other important sites are Pukara and the famous coastal necropolis of Paracas.Early Intermediate Period (200 B.C.E. Ã¢â¬â600 C.E.): The Chavin influence wanes by 200 BC and the Early Intermediate period sees the emergence of local traditions like the Moche, and Gallinazo in the north coast, the Lima culture, in the central coast, and Nazca, in the south coast. In the northern highlands, the Marcahuamachuco and Recuay traditions arose. Huarpa tradition flourished in the Ayacucho basin, and in the southern highlands, Tiwanaku arose in the Titicaca basin. The Middle Horizon (600Ã¢â¬â1000 C.E.): This period is characterized by climatic and environmental changes in the Andean region, brought about by cycles of droughts and El NiÃ ±o phenomenon. The Moche culture of the north underwent a radical reorganization, with the move of its capital farther north and inland. In the center and south, the Wari society in the highland and Tiwanaku in the Titicaca basin expanded their dominion and cultural traits to the whole region: Wari toward north and Tiwanaku toward the southern zones.The Late Intermediate Period (1000Ã¢â¬â1476 C.E.): This period is signified by a return to independent polities governing different areas of the region. In the north coast, the ChimÃ º society with its huge capital Chan Chan. Still on the coast the Chancay, Chincha, Ica, and Chiribaya. In the highland regions, the Chachapoya culture arose in the north. Other important cultural traditions are the Wanka, who opposed a fierce resistance to the first expansion o f the Inca.Late Horizon (1476Ã¢â¬â1534 C.E.): This period spans from the emergence of the Inca empire, with the expansion of their dominion outside the Cuzco region until the arrival of the Europeans. Among important Inca sites are Cuzco, Machu Picchu, Ollantaytambo.
Sunday, February 16, 2020
Human motor development a lifespan approach - Research Paper Example The lifespan approach studies an individual over the relapsing and progressive stages of growth. Socialization in human motor development is very important because through it people learn who they are and how we are connected to other people. When a child is born, the process of socialization starts and this period is most crucial for the process because it is at this stage that we acquire identities like culture, language and acquire personality. This process continues further even into adult life. As a child grows, it enters into different stages and are expected to socialize with different people. There are different ways that are used to teach socialization to their children as they grow (ONeil, 2011). Formal education, one of the ways, is the knowledge that teachers pass onto children and is a crucial period for children as they grow into adults so as to socialize properly with the people with whom they will interact. The other one is informal education which can be passed on through many forums and it involves imitating what is done by others, experimenting and practicing basic skills that are being done by others. Cognitive development is the growth of the thought process which includes the ability to remember things and events, solve problems, and arrive to decisions through from childhood to adult hood. It is known that babies start to be interested in their surroundings and to explore them from birth. As children go through different levels of growth, they are able to for example, smile, recognize close family members, respond to name become inquisitive and do various other things as they undergo cognitive development. Unless the child undergoes cognitive impairment, or the affecting of this process by factors like autism and other leaning disabilities or illnesses, this process is systematic throughout life. When there is deprivation, research has shown that it affects motor development. Children who have been brought