Tuesday, August 25, 2020
Promoting Plan Critique - Essay Example Notwithstanding, these advertising plans have a few weaknesses that ought to be recognized and adjusted if more noteworthy achievement is to be accomplished. This article is an investigate of some showcasing plans of Colgate-Palmolive Company. It looks to give a few suggestions that address the answers for the issues distinguished. The Marketing Plan of this organization is organized to concentrate on advancing the brand in abroad market just as guaranteeing item separation and situating so as to best serve its clients and simultaneously beat the two its nearby and local contenders. To meet these targets, the organization has utilized the procedure of market division wherein it has separated its items as oral, individual consideration and family unit things. Despite the fact that the organization has put forth attempts to broaden, its significant rivals, for example, Unilever have cut their items substantially more giving them more noteworthy preferences over Colgate. Therefore, Colgate has looked to advance its image through commercials. Shockingly, the organization doesn't do these adverts in neighborhood dialects, in contrast to its rivals. Publicizing in nearby dialects causes the organizations to recognize themselves with the intended interest groups (Cadogan, 2009, p. 112). Its geographic division procedu re wherein it has tried to stretch out its activities to in excess of 200 countries has not been so valuable since it has embraced a style in which it confines deals of a similar product in each nation. Each nation has an unmistakable item. This makes a hole as most clients are cut off from getting to items they could have seen or known about in different nations. Colgate-Palmolive is an unmistakable benefit making association that has a large portion of its arrangements and methodologies directly with the exception of a not many that should be rethought. With such an unbelievable piece of the pie in top economies, the organization can accomplish more than what it has if the accompanying proposals are mulled over. To start with, the organization ought to
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Advertising research .. venture - Essay Example With 95% certainty interim; it implies that we acknowledge the invalid speculation that the mean reaction to X166-sensible Prices are lower than 6 and reject the elective theory that the mean reaction to X166-sensible costs are higher than 6. From a pragmatic stance, the consequences of the Univariate speculation test demonstrated that respondents saw the menu were fundamentally lower than 6 and this can be reflected by the mean of 4.508641975 for X14 and 4.338271605 for X16. The mean qualities for X22 and X32 are 4.82963 and 0.348148148 separately. To decide whether the two mean are altogether unique with an equivalent fluctuation, a t-measurable investigation is attempted. The one tail results give a t-condemning of 1.647649 while the two tail gives a t-basic aftereffect of 1.964318. In any case; passing by the one tail, the t-basic is 1.647649 contrasted and a noteworthiness level of 0.00, we acknowledge the invalid theory that the two methods are measurably noteworthy. As per the book page 498, this investigation should think about the degree of fulfillment among male and female-thinking about the mean. Notwithstanding, from the outcomes there is no generous help for the invalid theory to find out that the two methods are equivalent, and subsequently we infer that male clients are altogether more fulfilled than female clients. The mean estimations of X21, X22 and X23 are 4.82963, 4.464198 and 3.785185. The invalid theory is to test if the mean of the factors are essentially extraordinary. The p-value=3.59 while the critical level Ã ±=o.05; thusly we acknowledge the invalid speculation that the mean of the factors are altogether extraordinary (p-value>0.05). That is, the mean impression of guys between the two eateries don't vary fundamentally on fulfillment or probability of
Thursday, July 30, 2020
Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Alcoholism and Addiction Addiction Coping and Recovery Overcoming Addiction Print How Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) Is Used to Treat Addiction By Buddy T facebook twitter Buddy T is an anonymous writer and founding member of the Online Al-Anon Outreach Committee with decades of experience writing about alcoholism. Learn about our editorial policy Buddy T Medically reviewed by Medically reviewed by Steven Gans, MD on March 04, 2016 Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital. Learn about our Medical Review Board Steven Gans, MD Updated on May 03, 2019 Ned Frisk / Getty Images More in Addiction Coping and Recovery Overcoming Addiction Methods and Support Personal Stories Alcohol Use Addictive Behaviors Drug Use Nicotine Use In This Article Table of Contents Expand What It Is Components Duration of Treatment Effectiveness View All Back To Top Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is commonly used to treat depression, anxiety disorders, phobias, and other mental disorders. Yet, it has also been shown to be valuable in treating alcoholism and drug addiction. This is especially true when its part of an overall program of recovery. Cognitive-behavioral coping skills treatment is a short-term, focused therapeutic approach to helping drug-dependent people become abstinent. It does so by using the same learning processes you used to develop alcohol and drug dependence in the first place. What It Is Cognitive behavior therapy is based on the idea that feelings and behaviors are caused by a persons thoughts, not on outside stimuli like people, situations, and events. While you may not be able to change your circumstances, you can change how you think about them. According to cognitive behavior therapists, this helps you change how you feel and behave. In the treatment of alcohol and drug dependence, the goal of CBT is to: Teach the person to recognize situations in which they are most likely to drink or use drugs.Avoid these circumstances if possible.Cope with other problems and behaviors which may lead to their substance abuse. Other Approaches to CBT According to the National Association of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapists, there are several approaches to CBT. This includes rational emotive behavior therapy, rational behavior therapy, rational living therapy, cognitive therapy, and dialectic behavior therapy. Components In its use to treat alcohol and drug dependent individuals, CBT has two main components: functional analysis and skills training. Functional Analysis: Working together, the therapist and individual try to identify the thoughts, feelings, and circumstances that led to and followed drinking or using. This helps determine the risks that are likely to lead to a relapse. Functional analysis can also give insight into why they drink or use drugs in the first place. This helps identify situations in which the person has coping difficulties. Skills Training: If someone is at the point where they need professional treatment for their addiction, chances are they are using alcohol or drugs as their main means of coping with problems. The goal of CBT is to get the person to learn or relearn better-coping skills. The therapist tries to help the individual unlearn old habits and learn to develop healthier skills and habits. The main goal is to educate them about ways to change how they think about their substance abuse. Then they can learn new ways to cope with the situations and circumstances that led to their drinking or drugging episodes in the past. Duration of Treatment Because cognitive behavior therapy is a structured, goal-oriented educational process focused on immediate problems, the process is usually short-term. Although other forms of therapy and psychoanalysis can take years, CBT is usually completed in 12 to 16 sessions with the therapist. Effectiveness According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, more than 24 randomized controlled trials have been conducted among users of tobacco, alcohol, cocaine, marijuana, opiates, and other types of substances. This makes cognitive-behavioral treatments one of the most frequently evaluated psychosocial approaches to treating substance use disorders. In these studies, CBT has been shown most effective when compared with having no other treatment at all. When compared with other treatment approaches, studies have had mixed results. Some show CBT to be more effective while others show it to be of equal, but not greater, effectiveness than other treatments. As with other treatments for alcoholism and drug abuse, including pharmaceutical treatments, cognitive behavior therapy works best when combined with other recovery efforts. This includes participation in support groups like Alcoholics Anonymous or Narcotics Anonymous. In short, behavior cognitive therapy works well for some, but not for everyone. This is the case with all alcoholism and drug treatment approaches because every person deals with and recovers from addiction in a different way. The 9 Best Online Therapy Programs
Friday, May 22, 2020
After the American Civil War, a laissez-faire government allowed for a new class of businessmen to rise to power: those who dominated an entire industry, sometimes several markets. They were the hallmark of the so-called Gilded Age, which lasted from the end of reconstruction until the early 1900s. These men, known as Robber Barons, shaped the American economy, necessitating new laws to be signed to limit their power . Although there were only four main Barons (John D. Rockefeller, Andrew Carnegie, Cornelius Vanderbilt, and J.P. Morgan), they controlled much of the economy with their four respective trades: Oil, steel, railroads, and banking . Although all four were important, Rockefeller and Carnegie stand head and shoulders above the rest, becoming among the richest and most successful people the world has ever seen with the exception of some royalty. During the Civil War, both the Union and Confederacy converted to Ã¢â¬Å"Total WarÃ¢â¬ economies. With all industries, from manu facturing to agriculture to textiles, focused on the war effort, many relatively new industries grew surpassingly large. Railroads in the North grew by around 16,000 miles, an increase of nearly 75%. However, relatively small companies controlled relatively small sections of track privately. This set the stage for Vanderbilt to begin buying up companies until he controlled one of the largest railroad networks ever seen. The latter parts of the Civil War and the early reconstruction saw the rise of a newShow MoreRelatedPost Civil War: Reconstructive Era and African Americans1070 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe African American during the Reconstruction Era probably felt victorious as well as discomfited. Prior to the Civil war, slaves vehemently hoped freedom would give them the right of equal status in American society, but to their surprise, their dream of an egalitarian America was impeded after the assassination of President Lincoln. Their lives became drastically different and diffic ult in an era that was increasingly contumacious to their well wishes. The end of the Civil War brought socialRead MoreThe American Civil War1418 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesGuns fired, smoke lingering in the air, people dying. The American Civil War had a huge impact on the United States. Two compromises took place before the start of the Civil War. These compromises include the Missouri Compromise and the Compromise of 1850. The Missouri Compromise dealt with the crisis in 1819 over Missouri entering the Union as a slave state. The compromise was Ã¢â¬Å"the first major crisis over slavery, and it shattered a tacit agreement between the two regions that had been in placeRead MoreEssay about The Reconstruction Era: The Planted Seeds1231 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe first roar of the Civil War ended with a last gasp for air. Where in such a war more than six hundred twenty thousand men sacrificed their lives for their own belief in the abolishment of slavery (Ã¢â¬Å"Civil War FactsÃ¢â¬ ). Ã ¢â¬Å"We here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain. That this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedomÃ¢â¬ (Baslor). These wise words of Abraham Lincoln cleared the way of a desolate trail of violence and pain, yet he was determined to accomplish his plansRead MoreThe Civil War Was A Grave Cause Of Many Events. Many People1663 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe civil war was a grave cause of many events. Many people may see the results of the war as a chain reaction to many following eras. One of the most prominent eras that emerged from the civil war was the reconstruction era. The reconstruction era emerged around 1865 and continued until 1877. This time period generally refers to the time in United States history in which the federal government set the conditions that would allow the rebellious Southern states back into the Union. The States wereRead MoreA Working Polish Man Named Jurgis Rudkus1199 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagessocietal influences. -Thesis: Upton SInclair applied aspects of the Civil War in his novel with his views on the treatment of humanity through the use of symbolism, and the presentation of the conflict and resolution. Body Paragraphs Paragraph 1: 1P: The symbolism presented in the novel brings upon the relation of the oppression experienced by the immigrant workers and African American slaves laboring on farms during the Civil War era. E: Ã¢â¬Å"In these chutes the stream of animals was continuously, pressingRead MoreThe End Of The 20th Century1544 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesHistory since the end of the Civil War to the end of the 20th century has changed drastically when you asses America on an economic, social, and political level. The changes between the end of the 19th century and the end of the 20th century are the cause in the way America has been shaped and how AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s think. In fact, industrialization and urbanization, equal rights for all citizens, and two world wars played a major role in the shape of America to our understanding. Although, there are numerousRead More`` Ain t I A Woman ``865 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageswas very hectic due to the Civil War. For a while, people wanted to get away or hide from their realities when they wrote or read literature. During the Civil War, mindsets changed and people were tired of the fantasies. People craved realistic stories with real, life-like endings. Realist w riters answered the cry of Americans who wanted to explore realistic literature; Sojourner TruthÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"AinÃ¢â¬â¢t I A WomanÃ¢â¬ is a true representation of literature during the realistic era. The start of realism inRead MoreOrigin Of And Role Played By Manifest Destiny1323 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesUnited StatesÃ¢â¬â¢ population had more than quadrupled and Americans believed God had destined that they span the entire North America from one coast to the other. Although the term Ã¢â¬Å"Manifest DestinyÃ¢â¬ was used to typify the 1840s American expansionistic exuberance, it can be broadly used to characterize any countryÃ¢â¬â¢s imperialistic thrusts (Harriet). In this regard, Utah, the indigenous American Indians, faced expansionistic archetypes with the Americans, Spanish imperialists, European and French fur tradersRead MoreEssay about Hist204 African American Annotated Bibliography1098 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAfrican Americans Hester 1 The African American race and the events they have been involved in from 1865- resent day, have single handedly contributed to and shaped the race they are today and the issues they deal with now. There are six specific areas of history that had great impact an effect on shaping African Americans, their culture, the society, and even social status to date. These events include The Civil War, this marked the beginning of freedom for blacks or so they thought. It directlyRead More The Progressive Era Essay1275 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesStates. The progressive era was a time in which Americans were innovating in social welfare. In the progressive period the government needed to take action in the role of economy, regulating big business, immigration, and urban growth. Once the great depression happened in which AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s economy faltered people started to panic. For Americans the main issues asked were how to make society work more efficiently. The great society era was a time of opt imism after the post-world war II occurred. The creations
Saturday, May 9, 2020
Argumentative Essay Topics Course Hero English Writing Exposed Anyway, you should also study different writers arguments for and against the very same or similar topics. Writing persuasive speech is a difficult job for many students. You concentrate on the validity or otherwise of the arguments offered in the essay. You also may be interested in business law essay topics. Choosing Argumentative Essay Topics Course Hero English Writing Examine the list to choose the topic which can help you compose a creative essay for your middle school class. Nonetheless, the teachers still anticipate that students will pick a great topic for an expository essay. To compose a strong argumentative essay, students should start by familiarizing themselves with a number of the common, and frequently conflicting, positions on the research topic so they can write an educated paper. Read the list and stay in mind that interesting topics are a proper way for an intriguing assignment. 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Argumentative essay examples are the very best way to approach your essay. The Argumentative Essay Topics Course Hero English Writing Cover Up Even today exists a group of folks who believe essay writing is the simplest aspect of any educational program and that which you should do there, is to just go on writing whatever and wherever you truly feel like writing whatever comes in your mind. Writing argumentative essay is a complicated job, as it requires the presence of many skills at the identical time. Comparing important facts can be beneficial in research writing, which is the reason why Comparative essay writing is a significant exercise for tasks that you're going to be assigned at school. Later it is going to be much simpler to finish the assignment. You are able to write your Comparative essay by using online tips if you are prepared to work hard and study the critical points supplied by different sites. 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Argumentative essays require students to collect a whole lot of inf ormation on the subject and have a huge array of information on the subject. Assignments are meant to evaluate your application, analysis, and critical thinking skills concerning the concepts you learn in the program. Freedom to choose subjects you wish to study. In this kind of situation, it's more convenient to locate ready-made essays and use them as an example. Becoming in a position to compose a strong argument can help you succeed in society. It's possible to also use a character's dialogue to put in a descriptive element. Your viewpoint ought to be stated as the last outcome. The 30-Second Trick for Argumentative Essay Topics Course Hero English Writing How to decrease level of stress when you reside in a fast-paced society. It's thus important that students choose topics they are able to readily get a great deal of information within a brief time period. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020
ETHICS FINAL PROJECT 1. Proposed Action Plan: Describe the action plan you proposed at the beginning of the semester. At the beginning of the semester we first had the idea of taking a computer to the asylum to help those people in there to have more technology; we also wanted to take brooms and mops to help them to have cleaned the house. We will write a custom essay sample on Ethics Final Project or any similar topic only for you Order Now The entire classroom talked about this and each team decided to do something for those needed people. 2. Done activities: Explain very carefully the different activities you did during this semester, including dates, names of the responsible people in the team, and results. We went to the computer department to see if they had a computer with no use and if they can give it to use, they decided to tell us when they got one with no use. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s how they did it, after a time they told us, but it was a long time when they advised us so we had another project which was to make stairs for rehabilitation to the people in the asylum, so we united with other team and gave them money to make this project real. 3. Comparative of the results: Write down if the results of your project were the ones you expected. If not, how are they different? Why? We wanted to give them the computer so we didnÃ¢â¬â¢t expect that we would unite our team with another one to make the stairs project, so we think it is not what we expected to be our project but we think that the idea to unite teams was a good one because the stairs were really expensive. 4. Personal Learning: Explain if the members of the team had some learning experience with this project. Yes all of the team members had a great experience, because of helping people ho needed and thatÃ¢â¬â¢s the main reason why because it feels great doing that, and knowing that other people can get better just for a little help of yours. 5. Team Work: Describe how your team work was, including positive and negative aspects. Our team work was good because we went to the asylum and check what they needed and because the team all united went to the computers department and all of the team members had a great experience with this project and not only because w e did it well, itÃ¢â¬â¢s because we helped other people. 6. Conclusion: Finally write down a conclusion about the social work you had this semester. We think this semester help us a lot because of many things, we helped needed people and thatÃ¢â¬â¢s feels great, we learned ethics about many things of the human life animal life and many things more. This was a great semester and all the team members are really happy to be here in this class, thanks Elideth for doing this to us. Team Members: Erick Villasenor Oscar Torres Paola Delgadillo Joel Azuara Victor Galvan Sofia Ascanio Daniela Diaz Juan Pablo Fernandez Vertiz How to cite Ethics Final Project, Essay examples
Wednesday, April 29, 2020
The Role of Fear and Obsession on Gothic Literature Paper Gothicism itself is a branch of Romanticism, which twists the idea of feeling into slightly more morbid and macabre emotions of fear and a dead, twisted and medieval past as well as losing the early Romantic sense of a moral purpose. The quotation above, taken from Oscar Wildes novel The Picture of Dorian Gray, introduces some of the key ideas which seem to run prevalently throughout Gothic works of fiction and art. It seems undeniable that influence and obsession are able to create, manipulate and dominate the emotions of fear and dread which often characterise the Gothic. Edmund Burke stated that: No passion so effectually robs the minds of all its powers of acting and reasoning as fear. It seems that within the development of the Gothic, fear plays a ubiquitous role. Influence can be prevalent in inciting fear, the influence of a figure or an atmosphere and other less tangible elements of the work can be key factors which hold a certain influence over the individual. However, fear in itself is often seen to present its own influence and it is this tantalizing inexplicable mystery of fear which so often develops and envelopes a character with obsession to retain truth and logic. We will write a custom essay sample on The Role of Fear and Obsession on Gothic Literature specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on The Role of Fear and Obsession on Gothic Literature specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on The Role of Fear and Obsession on Gothic Literature specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Within Susan Hills novel, The Woman in Black, the main character Arthur Kipps demonstrates an obvious fear of the woman in black and the supernatural elements of her presence and appearance suffering from some terrible wasting disease only the thinnest layer of flesh was tautly stretched and strained across her bones- are certainly expressed vividly throughout and contribute largely to the influence which she increasingly has on not only Kipps but also the villagers. The use of heavy adjectival phrases in describing the woman, the idea of deepest black, the woman described as pathetically wasted pale and gaunt with disease and the alliterative skin stretched and strained, give an initially comprehensive description of the woman which not only creates fear but also develops it steadily and makes it feel ubiquitous and unavoidable, as though every element of her is grotesque. Within the pre-1948 setting of the novel the idea of wasting, particularly referring to Tuberculosis, would have had a particularly chilling effect as the disease would have been the cause of many deaths and, before the introduction of the NHS, the lack of readily available health care would have made the disease a constant source of fear. However, it could also be argued that it is not only the descriptions of the woman which perpetuate a sense of fear and influence both the characters and the reader, indeed Hills descriptions of the woman are often significantly sparse. It seems within this text that the influence of fear is born from the idea of the mysterious and the unexplored rather than the grotesque and it is the influence of the unknown which shapes fear and creates a sense of the Gothic. The idea of a local and tightly-knit community who all share and perpetuate a sense of secrecy links strongly with the idea of this as a Gothic text Hill here uses the idea of isolation and unfamiliarity to enhance the idea that Kipps is an outsider and to create the mystery and silence which only fuels the influence of fear upon him: Mr Jerome stopped dead. He was staring at me Mr. Jerome looked frozen, pale, his throat moving as if he were unable to utter. Mr Jeromes reaction as well as the hotel landlords the name had stirred some strong emotion in him, all signs of which he endeavoured to suppress at once, are representative of the general reaction towards not only the woman but anything associated with her and so clearly another manifestation of her influence over them. This idea of fear being sparked and fuelled by a sense of mystery is certainly reflected within Wordsworths poem, The Thorn. Within this poem, from his collection of Lyrical Ballads, strong links can be made with The Woman in Black. The woman within the poem, Martha Ray, is a figure to be feared in the same way as the woman in black not as a result of her as a character but of the mysteries which envelope her. The whole poem is presented as a narrators account of what he has seen and the rumours which he has heard about a woman in a scarlet cloak. Wordsworth exacerbates the sense of fear for the woman by presenting his evidence in a haphazard and hearsay-like manner, some say is said, whilst steadily reinforcing the mystery with a sense of foreboding and subtle allusions such as the fact that the heap of earth is like an infants grave in size as well as the anaphoric use of the womans mysterious misery Oh woe is me! Oh misery! . Michael Kirkham states that the mystery comes from the fact that the narrator is unable to tell us whether the child was stillborn or was murdered1, Whilst Albert Gi rard, discussi ng why we are left in doubt, quotes a sentence from J. F. Danby, There is in the poem the possibility of a betrayed mother murdering her child, and adds, but the point, surely, is that it is never more than a possibility. 2 It seems key to the development of the story within the poem that the reader is made to feel the same sense of mystery that the narrator claims to feel. These slight allusions to wider and more traditionally fearful elements of the works are strongest when discussing the element of childhood and child mortality. The continued association which the woman has with death throughout The Woman in Black, too, obviously contributes largely to her mystery and the fear of her and is reinforced by the allusions to childhood mortality and the final revelation that witnessing her causes children to die- And whenever she has been seen in some violent or dreadful circumstance, a child has died. Again this can be seen within The Thorn as the references to a possible infants death create an initial unease which reaches a climax with some will say she hanged her baby on the tree, some say she drowned it in the pond. The delivery of this revelation, in a blank and unashamedly horrific fashion certainly shocks a reader and gives the cold feeling of dread which is so often identified as an element of Gothicism however, it seems that this only occurs as a result of the steady influence of mysterious and unexplored fear which Wordsworth has continually built upon. The idea of death amongst children would have been an extremely poignant and harshly relevant one contemporaneously where fears of childbirth itself and infancy were elevated. Our baby so had been thrown clear, clear against another tree. He lay crumpled on the grass below it, dead. Again the harsh brevity and impersonal nature of these words seem to give a stark poignancy and factual element to the death of Kipps baby within Susan Hills novel; it seems as though the woman and death are inevitably interlinked and it is this inevitability which serves to enhance the dread of her character. Fear itself as well as the influence which fear can have is also one of the key themes of Oscar Wildes novel, The Picture of Dorian Gray. Within The Picture of Dorian Gray, the portrait, an obvious anthropomorphised motif for sin and shame, is the source of fear to Dorian and it is the power of this fear which on several occasions exerts strong influences upon him. The idea of this novel as immoral would particularly be a reference to its direct challenge to Victorian morals and values of family, sexual restraint and strict social code of conduct which were propagated at the time. Certainly at the time of publication the book was labelled evil, whilst the Scots Observer wrote that Mr. Wilde has again been writing stuff that were better unwritten3. This quotation perhaps also demonstrates the fear of others towards the influence which Wilde himself may have held. It is not just the fear of being discovered which eats away at Dorian but the fear of himself and what he is capable of it was the living death of his own soul that troubled him. Dorians panicked self-promises to revert to an acceptable lifestyle and vain attempts to atone for his sins, though futile, are all obviously influenced by his portrait: One thing, however, he felt that it had done for him. It had made him conscious how unjust, how cruel, he had been to Sibyl Vane he portrait would be a guide to him through life, I have done too many dreadful things in life. I am not going to do any more. However, far from this fear acting as a constant reminder of morality, the fear also wields a strongly negative influence through the extreme excitement and passion of sin. This effectively reflects the nature of the mysterious fear within The Woman in Black and The Thorn a s fear itself is perhaps the greatest mystery and so the excitement for Dorian Gray lies in testing and breaking the mysteries of sin and debauchery, all characteristic elements of the Gothic. The link between influence and obsession within The Picture of Dorian Gray is strong; it can easily be seen that obsession is merely the product of strong influence, the degradation into the fervent compulsion of obsession from unavoidable influence He grew more and more enamoured of his own beauty, more and more interested in the corruption of his own soul The more he knew, the more he desired to know. He had mad hungers that grew more ravenous as he fed them. This influence is seen largely within Dorians own fear rather than the hideousness of the portrait. This path from influence upon a character to their obsession can also be seen within The Woman in Black where the influence of the fear upon Arthur Kipps develops into his obsession with delving into and uncovering the mystery: the woman in black affected us both as deeply as any other experience we had undergone in our lives I must face it out Such things one must face. And even as I spoke I felt a new determination arise within me I had fallen under some sort of spell of the kind that certain places exude and it drew me, my imaginings, my longings, my curiosity, my whole spirit . Aside from the influence which fear itself can present, within these three texts and indeed many other texts which present elements of the Gothic, the influential and obsessive power of the supernatural can be seen. Supernatural ideas, particularly commencing with those found in an orthodox theology, came strongly into conflict with the rationalism and idealism of the Enlightenment and the Age of Reason which had begun to take hold by 1688 and continued into around 1789. Gothicism, following from the Romantic, was born when seizing this challenge of the cold reality of enlightenment and, seeking feeling amidst the inartistic reason, twisted these feelings into extremes of fear, weirdness and grotesqueness. The friction with the new schools of thought caused disillusionment and discord and in the midst of the disagreement, Gothicism adopted elements of the Supernatural as both a reaction to the new ideals and due to the stretched extremes and inherent impossibility of the supernatural. The Picture of Dorian Gray deals strongly with the element of supernaturalism with Wildes interpretation of Marlowe and Goethes Faust myth via the changing portrait. This notion of a deal with the devil is, however, stretched in Wildes novel to present the obsessive influence of sin rather than just the uselessness of power. The portrait, changing to display Dorians sins and ages whilst he remains unchanged, seems to present an almost paradoxical influence over Dorian; whilst Dorians actions clearly influence the aesthetics of the picture, making it the misshapen shadow that had to bear the burden that should have been his own, the pictures horrid nature influences Dorians actions. It can be seen that the picture renders him sometimes good: it was watching him e would not sin and sometimes, through the mere obsessive nature of sin and lust, damning him: he grew more and more enamoured of the corruption of his own soul he had mad hungers that grew more ravenous as he fed them, an uncontrollable feeling of hatred suggested to him by the image. It could be viewed that this paradox between the influence between Dorian and the portrait reflects that in fact influence, far from being something supernatural and beyond control, has more of a sub-conscious and human factor in which we create and control our own i nfluences. Similarly The Woman in Black presents strong elements of the supernatural; the woman herself clearly has a ghostly influence over Mr. Kipps. It seems that the fact that she is a ghost, aside from the aforementioned appearance and attire, renders her influential and fearful. However there are other elements of the woman which make her so strongly influential over Arthur Kipps, the villagers and indeed the reader. Contextually, the notion of this woman would indeed have been something which was a source of great fear for many. The idea of a lone woman would have been unacceptable in this Victorian situation and could certainly have also created allusions to witchcraft and other ideas which challenge a strong morality of not only traditional family values but also the subservience of woman and the notion of them as the possession of a man, to be kept in check, whilst also presenting the mystery of the unknown. In addition to this, the woman herself has been viewed by several critics, such as Val Scullion, as the feminist protagonist of the novel. This reading presents the notion that the woman is fearful and influential through her obvious hideousness and difference but also because she is a woman. The contention is that Hills novel challenges the prevalent anxieties about motherhood and autonomy during the period when the idea of family itself was a difficult notion. The protagonist of the novel, the eponymous woman in black, resists the lot of the so-called fallen woman. In her spectral form, she repeatedly inflicts suffering on other families and children to avenge her own; her revenge and lack of compassion is unbound by time or place whilst her ghost is never laid to rest. The lack of restoration in the final pages could reflect her struggle and the limitlessness of the pain which she will cause. This view, held by Scullion, contends that the woman is fearful because she exists against the idea that a woman should be restrained and controlled. However, it seems more likely that the presentation of the woman in this way, as unruly and vengeful, is to enhance the fear rather than to play a more feminist role. It seems within these texts that a sense of Gothic, with regard to the influence and obsession of the characters, comes not so much from the conventional fear of the supernatural and the mystical but more from a human sense of emotion and instinct and things over which man has control. It is perhaps the cold reality and bluntness of possible sin, such as the murder of Basil Hallward within The Picture of Dorian Gray, which is far more chilling and fearful than anything other-worldly and unnatural. Wildes presentation of the murder, and Dorians feelings after, certainly create a strongly Gothic atmosphere yet without the expected darkness of a truly Gothic atmosphere. The sky was bright, and there was a genial warmth in the air the events of the preceding night crept with silent blood-stained feet into his brain, it seems that the notion of humanity and the obsession which drives us, has a more powerfully chilling influence than the strictly supernatural and weird. It is as though the element of possibility and familiarity of humanity is what creates the fear rather than something wildly improbable; fear is born from a twisted reality rather than an unimaginable wildness. The curious influence which Lord Henry himself has over Dorian, far from being supernatural, is still chilling and as effective at creating a sense of obsession and influence as the ghostly woman in black is within Hills novel. This influence and Henrys awareness of it there was something terribly enthralling in the exercise of influence is made more chilling to the reader because of its clearly degrading effect combined with Dorians naivety towards it: you are certainly my best friend, Harry, no-one has ever understood me as you have. Words from The Heart of Darkness by Conrad, another novel presenting the strongly horrific nature of man himself, seem appropriate: Look at the influence that men must have s it not frightful Porphyrias Lover, a poem by Robert Browning which presents strong elements of the Gothic, seems to do so too, not because it deals with elements of the spiritual and supernatural but, because it deals so shockingly with human passions and emotions, such as Dorians own or Henrys influence, which are certainly very possible and largely an element of humanity. The poem itself professes that passion will prevail, and it is chillingly Gothic that this murder has taken place not through the influence of a ghostly being or a portrait or indeed a decadent sense of medieval myth as in Keats St. Agnes Eve, but the plain obsession and influence of humanity and emotion. The obsession within this poem and the pure madness of Porphyrias lover, expecting God to interfere and say something And yet God has not said a word -, is dramatically heightened by the childlike simplicity of the rhyme; Rhythm mimics natural speech and the rhyme follows a conventional and standard ABABB pattern, this simplicity is demonstrated in the lines below. The symmetry of the rhyme and the ease and natural nature of the rhythm seem to reflect the madness within Porphyrias lover despite his reposed and calm fai de: surprise made my heart swell, and still it grew. The madness of the man is what has influenced his action yet it was also the perfection of the scene and the obsession with Porphyria and her love she was mine, mine, fair I strangled her . This obsession, a perfectly human one, yet insane, is what is most chilling about Brownings poem and indeed strongly reflects the sense of human influence within The Picture of Dorian Gray. Overall it is clear that influence, and the natural development of it into obsession, is a key feature which defines and creates the Gothic. Influence can abound in many forms within Gothic texts such as the natural influence of fear itself upon the victim and the unnatural fear of something supernatural; however, that which seems to create the element of spine-tingling and Gothic is bred mainly in something far more base and real than ghosts or curses. It is the possible which shocks and chills more than the unreal. In the same way that a terrible thought or feeling can be far more fearful than the unimaginable presence of something as otherworldly and unlikely as a curse, so too is Gothic literature defined by the baseness and instinct of humanity. Within these texts, particularly Porphyrias Lover, man himself, has more power in shaping his obsessions than would ordinarily be thought and the fact that emotions, thoughts and feelings can become so twisted and amoral is more greatly unsettling than anything incomprehensible. Human degradation is a cold reality and one which many strive to cover up yet when the mysteries of the human psyche are uncovered, perhaps because of a fearful obsession, the chilling nature of man is overturned.